We have two API operations for filters:
Get last view ( https://developers.podio.com/doc/views/get-last-view-27663 ) will get the last filter used by the user you are authenticating as.
Get views ( https://developers.podio.com/doc/views/get-views-27460 ) returns the saved views for that app.
You cannot go in and see which specific filter options each user has used the most recently. For repetitive processes (such as an API integration) you will want to create a specific saved view and use that. What is your exact case?